Determination of Additives

Determination of Additives

Determination of Additives

Food additives according to the Turkish Food Codex Regulation on Food Additives; "Whether it has nutritional value or not, it is not consumed as food alone and is not used as a characteristic component of the food, as a result of adding it to the food in the production, processing, processing, preparation, packaging, transportation or storage stages for a technological purpose, directly or are expressed as substances that are indirectly expected to be a component of that food.
Food additives; There are reasons of usage such as preserving and increasing the nutritional value of food, improving its textural properties, extending its shelf life, preserving its flavor and color, preventing microorganism growth, and increasing quality standardization. Within the scope of the "Food Additives Regulation", the additives allowed to be used in foods and their usage amounts are specified.
Our laboratories serving in many provinces in turkey, "Determination of Additives" in accordance with legal regulations and standards relating to Türkak accreditation is carried out.

Antioxidants turn them into non-toxic products by inhibiting the reaction systems that damage cells. For this reason, demand for foods containing antioxidants has increased in recent years. In addition, plant extracts containing antioxidant compounds are used as preservatives in the food industry.

Factors determining the place of antioxidants in human health; their chemical structure, solubility, structure / activity relationships and their derivation from natural sources.

Some antioxidants and gallates are as follows.

BHT (E321): Butylated hydroxytoluene, (2,6-diter butyl-4-methyl phenol; C15H24O) is a white colored and crystalline substance that is well soluble in oils but insoluble in water.

BHA (E320): BHA, a synthetic antioxidant (mixture of 2-tertiary-butyl-4-hydroxyanisole and 3-tertiary-butyl-4-hydroxyanisole; C11H16O2), has a white, waxy solid structure. It is an antioxidant that is soluble in both animal and vegetable oils but not soluble in water.

TBHQ (E319): Reversible-Butyl Hydroquinone is a synthetic antioxidant used in many product formulations in the food industry. Especially in oils with high unsaturated fatty acid content, it prevents the product from getting bitter by delaying oxidation and extends the shelf life.

Dodesil Gallat (E312): Synthesized from lauryl alcohol and gallic acid produced from plant tannins. The antioxidant in oily products is especially added to protect it from getting rancid.

Oktil Gallat (E311): Octyl gallate is a white powder with a characteristic odor. This antioxidant is used in a large number of pharmaceutical, cosmetic and food products.

Propyl gallat (E310): It is synthesized from propanol and gallic acid produced from plant tannins. The antioxidant in oily products is especially added to protect it from getting rancid.

Antioxidants to be used in foods; It should be harmless to human health, should be used in small amounts, should not cause odor, taste and appearance impairment in food and should not lose its effect in the production process.

You can contact us for "Determination of Antioxidants" in Foods.

Food coloring agents; They are additives used to preserve the natural color, which can be lost due to chemical and physical conditions such as pH, oxidation, light, water activity, during the production stages of foods and during storage, to strengthen the weak color, and to make them attractive and acceptable.

Food dyes especially; It is used in confectionery, biscuits, jams, instant soups, canned food, salad dressings, non-alcoholic drinks, cakes, gelatinous desserts.

In food additives E coding includes food dyes between E100 - E180. Most commonly used food dyes; Curcumin (E 100), Tartarazine (E 102), Quinoline Yellow (E 104), Sunset Yellow (E 110), Carmine (E 120), Azorubin (E 122), Amarant (E 123), Ponzo 4R (E 124) , Erythrosine (E 127), Allura Red (E 129), Patent Blue V (E 131), Indigotine (E 132), Brilliant Blue (E 133).

Synthetic and natural dyes are used in foods. Synthetic dyes are preferred more than natural dyes because of their stability and strong coloring. However, synthetic dyes can create toxic effects when added above the limits specified in foods.

The amount of use of synthetic food dyes used in foods is important for consumer health. Therefore, the use of food dyes has been restricted by various regulations.

Dye Detection and Determination of Synthetic Dye Content (HPLC-DAD Method) - GMMAY. Page: 89-94, NMKL 130

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Glucoronolactone is an intermediate product used in energy drinks resulting from the biochemical changes that glucose undergoes. After being taken into the body, they are rapidly absorbed and metabolized and excreted from the body.

Glucoronolactone found in energy drinks is synthetic. According to the Turkish Food Codex Communiqué on Energy Drinks, the amount of glucoronolactone that can be found in energy drinks is limited.

Determination of Glucoronolactone (LC-MS/MS Method) - J.of Ch.A, 1364(2014) 303-307

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Inositol, together with fatty acids, provides the formation of phospholipids necessary for the formation of cell membranes. It is densely found in the human body, in the lens layer of the brain, heart and eye. In the food sector, it appears as an additive in energy drinks.

Inositol are used in energy drinks. Inositol, which is found in energy drinks, is synthetic. According to the Turkish Food Codex Communiqué on Energy Drinks, the amount of inositol in energy drinks is limited.

Determination of Inositol (LC-MS/MS Method) - J. Food Sci. Moment. Vol. 35, No. 4, pp. 466~472 (2015)

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Taurine is found in many parts of the body, including skeletal muscle, which falls under the essential amino acid category. Taurine in general; It is found in foodstuffs such as meat, milk and seafood. However, today it is widely used in energy drinks.

Taurine acts as an antioxidant and improves athletic performance. However, it has been determined that if 3 grams of daily consumption is exceeded, toxic effects may occur. Therefore, its use has been restricted by the Turkish Food Codex.

"Determination of Taurine" is carried out on energy drinks.

Taurine Determination (HPLC-UV Method) - Journal of Health Sciences 54 (6) 661-664 (2008), AOAC 997.05

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Carboxy Methyl Cellulose (CMC) is a substance used as a thickener in foods. Carboxy Methyl Cellulose (CMC); It has an odorless, non-toxic, biodegradable structure.

In the food industry; They are used in ice cream, bakery foods, beer, cream between cakes, puddings, fruit juices, ice cream, confectionery, some specific dairy products, cream cheese, jam, marmalade, baked products and diet products.

In bakery products; It is used to reduce water loss, increase consistency and improve structure, while it is preferred for reducing fragility in products such as pasta. In desserts, it is used as a thickener, controlling the formation of sugar crystals, improving the structure and preventing clumping. It is used as a water retainer, mouth flavor enhancer and consistency preservative in foods with high protein content. It is used as a fast thickener, a mouthfeel enhancer and a preservative of protein content, helping to preserve fruit extract in beverages. In frozen desserts; It is used to control the formation of ice crystals and to improve texture and mouthfeel. It is used as a thickening agent and a sticky structure in sauces. It is used as a lubricant, film-forming agent, water retainer, broth thickener and structure preservative in animal foods.

"Determination of Carboxy Methyl Cellulose (CMC)" is performed in various foodstuffs, milk and dairy products.

You can contact us for "Determination of Carboxy Methyl Cellulose (CMC)" in Foods.

Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) is used for many purposes such as freezing liquid, gassing agent, protective gas, extraction solvent in the food industry. Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), which is used as a protective gas, prolongs the shelf life of food by slowing respiration and microorganism growth in controlled atmosphere and modified atmosphere packaging. As a freezing liquid, it cools the food it is sprayed on while it evaporates. It is also used as extraction solvent in processes such as removing caffeine from coffee and obtaining β-carotene from carrots. In these processes, carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) only helps the processes without being added to the composition of foods. However, some beverages with soda, cola and fruit are also produced with the addition of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ).

Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) is produced by many methods. However, its use in the food industry is more related to its purity than the method it is produced in. The purity criterion for carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) has been specified in the Turkish Food Codex Communiqué on Purity Criteria for Additives Other than Colorants and Flavors Used in Foods.

"Determination of carbon dioxide (CO 2 )" is analyzed in alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages.

Determination of Carbon Dioxide (CO₂) - TS 2259

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Sulfur dioxide is one of the oldest methods used to store foods for a long time without spoiling and to protect their physical and chemical structures. However, sulfur dioxide residues cause undesirable taste changes in foods, destruction of vitamins by breaking down and some discomfort in humans. Therefore, the Codex Alimentarus Commission has limited sulfur intake.

It is of great importance to determine the amount of sulfur dioxide in directly consumed foods such as dried apricots, figs and grapes.

Sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) used as a preservative in foodstuffs; It varies according to the chemical structure of the food, the type and duration of the process applied, the storage conditions and the amount of product added. The purpose of using sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) is; To control the enzymatic or non-enzymatic reactions that occur during the drying of fruits and vegetables, to prevent the increase of microorganisms, to use it as an antioxidant and to extend the shelf life.

"Determination of Sulfur Dioxide (SO 2 )" is performed in various foods and wine types.

Determination of Sulfur Dioxide (SO₂) - TS 522

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Melamine is a chemical generally used in the production of glue and plastic. Today, melamine, which is obtained by many different methods, is used in the production of surface coatings, kitchen materials and plastic materials.

The high nitrogen content of melamine caused it to be used for adulteration in foodstuffs. In the determination of protein, the total amount of nitrogen in the food is determined, and melamine is added to the foodstuffs in order to pass the test processes. Melamine is an important parameter analyzed in determining adulteration in foods.

"Determination of Melamine" is performed in baby food and follow-on formulas, baby and young child supplements, milk and dairy products.

You can contact us for "Determination of Melamine" in Foods.

Monosodium Glutamate (MSG) with the code E621 in the Turkish Food Codex Food Additives Regulation, Monosodium Glutamate (MSG), the sodium salt of glutamic acid used to flavor foods, is a food additive.

Monosodium glutamate is one of the food additives used as flavoring in the processing and cooking of food in some countries. Monosodium Glutamate (MSG) is used in food production to prevent the perception of other flavors and to increase aroma.

The use of Monosodium Glutamate (MSG) as a flavoring in foodstuffs has led to questioning its safety in terms of human health. In the Turkish Food Codex Communiqué on Food Additives Excluding Colorants and Flavors, the daily consumption of glutamic acid and its salts is limited.

You can contact us for "Monosodium Glutamate (MSG) Determination" in Foods.

Natamycin is a preservative food additive coded E-235 used in the prevention of mold and yeast growth in milk and dairy products. Natamycin increases the shelf life of the antibiotic.

The presence of mold in foods is very important for human health. Molds can produce highly toxic substances (mycotoxins) at very low temperatures. Even if molds on food are cleaned, mycotoxins cannot be removed from food. Natamycin is very effective against all molds and yeasts seen in foods.

Natamycin in general; It is used as a preservative in the food industry. It is widely used in the production of cheese, sausage and sausage. Although natamycin intake has no toxic effects, daily intake is limited.

"Determination of Natamycin" is carried out in various foods, milk and dairy products.

You can contact us for "Determination of Natamycin" in Foods.

The chemical group, also called parabens, includes p-hydroxy benzoic acid, esters of p-hydroxy benzoic acid with methyl, ethyl, butyl and propyl, and sodium salts.

p-hydroxy benzoic acid esters are mostly used in the cosmetic industry and pharmacy. p-hydroxy benzoic acid esters differ in certain pH ranges. They are available in powder form and are odorless and resistant to hydrolysis reactions.

p-hydroxy benzoic acid esters are very effective against mold and yeast. However, they show low activity against bacteria. The most commonly used are propyl and methyl esters, and the daily intake varies between 0 - 10 mg / kg body weight.

E 214: Ethyl-p-hydroxybenzoate

E 215: Sodium ethyl p-hydroxybenzoate

E 218: Methyl p-hydroxybenzoate

E 219: Sodium methyl p-hydroxybenzoate

Determination of p-Hydroxy Benzoates HPLC-DAD Method - NMKL 124

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Food sulfurization process; It is a process used in the drying and preservation of fruits and vegetables, fresh fruits to be used for marmalade, jam and in the wine industry. As the sulfurizing agent used in these processes, potassium bisulfite, potassium metasulfite, sodium bisulfite, sodium sulfite and sodium metabisulfite, which can easily be converted to sulfur dioxide under suitable conditions, primarily sulfur dioxide (SO2), come to mind.

The process of sulfurization of foods is used as an antimicrobial in the control of microorganisms, as an antioxidant, reducing agent and enzyme inhibitor in enzymatic and non-enzymatic browning reactions.

In Food Additives Regulation; sodium metabisulfite and sulfur dioxide, antimictobial substances, preservatives. In the Turkish Food Codex Labeling Regulation / EK1 - Allergenic Substances or Products List, the usage limits of sodium metabisulphite are specified to prevent allergenic effects.

Sodium metabisulfite today; It is used as a bleach in confectionery and cakes in the food industry, as a loosening agent in bread and crackers, as an antimicrobial in fruit juice, canned food and cereal products.

Determination of Sodium Metabisulfite (in SO2) - AOAC 962.16

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Sorbic acid and benzoic acid are additives used as food preservatives.

Sorbic acid (E200) is an additive that protects foods against fungi, bacteria and mold. The allowed amount of sorbic acid in foods varies between 0.5% and 0.0025.

Benzoic acid (E210), the simplest member of the Aromatic carboxylic acid family, Benzoic Acid is a weak acid that is a precursor to the synthesis of many important organic compounds. It is used to prevent microorganism spoilage from foods. It is especially used in jam, marmalade, fruit juice, ketchup, carbonated drinks and pickles.

The use of sorbic acid and benzoic acid in foods has been restricted within the scope of the "Turkish Food Codex Food Additives Regulation".

Sarbic acid and benzoic acid determination (HPLC-DAD methadone) - NMGL124

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Sudan paints are forbidden to use, red paints used to color oils, wax, petrol, shoes and floor polishes. It has been detected especially in imported red peppers and in foods where these powdered red peppers are used.

Sudan red I; it is a chemical dye. It is classified as a carcinogenic substance by the International Cancer Research Center. Sudan red IV is a genotoxic carcinogenic dye. Their use in foodstuffs is strictly prohibited due to their carcinogenic effects.

Sudan dyes are synthetic and do not naturally occur in foods. Sudan dyes are a parameter analyzed on foodstuffs due to their harmful effects on humans.

In determination of Sudan dyes; The presence of Sudan I, Sudan II, Sudan III, Sudan IV, Para Red, Rhodamine, Sudan Red G, Sudan Red B, Sudan Red 7B, Sudan Orange G, Sudan Black B parameters are checked.

"Determination of Sudanese Dyes" is carried out in spices.

Determination of Sudan Dyes (LC-MS/MS Method) - Waters App. Note

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Artificial sweeteners; They are chemical components that have no caloric value and give a sweet taste without affecting blood sugar. Sucralose, Aspartame, Acesulfame-K and Saccharin are an artificial sweetener used as a sugar substitute.

Sucralose; It is more effective than artificial sweeteners such as aspartame, acesulfame-K, saccharin.

Sucralose (E955); Sucralose, obtained from sugar by chlorination method, is 600 times sweeter.

Aspartame (E951); It is 180 times sweeter than sugar.

Saccharin (E954); It is 300 times sweeter than sugar.

Acesulfame-K (E950); It is 200 times sweeter than sugar.

Sucraloz; It is added to carbonated drinks, chewing gum, baking mixes, breakfast cereals and salad dressings. Since sucralose is soluble in ethanol, methanol and water, it can be used in oil and water-based products, alcoholic beverages.

Aspartame; It is used in chocolate, frozen desserts, chewing gum and bakery products.

Sakkarin; It is used in products such as confectionery, alcoholic beverages and toothpaste. If

Asesulfam-K; It is used in products such as pickles, cereals, chewing gum, sweets, marmalades.

Generally, artificial sweeteners are not recommended products for human health. It is especially harmful in terms of creating a basis for diabetes. In the Turkish Food Codex Regulation on Food Additives, the usage limits of artificial sweeteners are specified and limited.

Determination of Aspartame, Acesulfame-K and Saccharin (HPLC-UV Method) - TS EN 12856

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